solanum tuberosum meaning
The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to international health concerns. Next Up: French Fry Fans, J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato Genetically Engineered for Low Acrylamide Potential and Reduced Black Spot Bruise. Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, which is a highly branched molecule, help the potato retain its shape after being boiled in water. It remains an essential crop in Europe, especially Northern and Eastern Europe, where per capita production is still the highest in the world, while the most rapid expansion in production over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia, with China and India leading the world in overall production as of 2018. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. Other major producers were India, Russia, Ukraine and the United States.  Potatoes that are good for making potato chips or potato crisps are sometimes called "chipping potatoes", which means they meet the basic requirements of similar varietal characteristics, being firm, fairly clean, and fairly well-shaped. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean. , The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. blemishes or bruises, pointy ends). Aloo posto (a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. , Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants. Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps, and, in severe cases, coma and death. , In November 2014, the USDA approved a genetically modified potato developed by J.R. Simplot Company, which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.. It also contains the nightshades and horse nettles, as well as numerous plants … Many cultivars exist in varying textures, sizes, and colors that are suited for a variety of culinary uses.  German fries and various version of Potato salad are part of German cuisine. Piant da pòmm da tèra. Potato delivery services include, McNeill, William H. "How the Potato Changed the World's History.". Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena.  The potato genome contains 12 chromosomes and 860 million base pairs, making it a medium-sized plant genome. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. E raw cassava Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarusian cuisine.  Thousands of varieties still persist in the Andes however, where over 100 cultivars might be found in a single valley, and a dozen or more might be maintained by a single agricultural household. However, it is used in northern China where rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish being 青椒土豆丝 (qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī), made with green pepper, vinegar and thin slices of potato. It was the first toy ever advertised on television. Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder. , Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. For other uses, see, Plant species producing the tuber used as a staple food.  The wild Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project encourages the use of wild relatives in breeding programs. The consistent parenchyma tissue, the clonal nature of the plant and the low metabolic activity provide a very nice "model tissue" for experimentation. Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century, part of the Columbian exchange. Each nutrient (every row) has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a 100-gram raw portion. In 2012, GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF. Different designs use different systems at this point. , Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, with the leaves dying back after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. New potatoes may be cooked with mint and are often served with butter.. In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple, fish and chips. The Potato (Solanum tuberosum L., 1753) is an herbaceous plant reaching 60 to 150 cm of height (variable depending on the variety), belonging to the family of theSolanaceae.. These are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i.e. Curing is normally done at relatively warm temperatures (10 to 16 °C or 50 to 60 °F) with high humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also called "true potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. De aardappel: Solanum tuberosum. del distrito de Vilcashuaman, Ayacucho--Peru, mediante AFLP, Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Activities of Polyphenol Extracts from Solanum tuberosum spp. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant. Potatoes can be grown from cut sections of potato … Potatoes are prepared in many ways: skin-on or peeled, whole or cut up, with seasonings or without. Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows (called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up"). Correct potato husbandry can be an arduous task in some circumstances. tuberosum and spp. In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada, and samosa, which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. However, when these commercial varieties turn green, they can still approach solanine concentrations of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). The subunits can dissociate in solution to produce a monomeric form of the lectin which does not agglutinate cells.  The yield gap between farms in developing economies and developed economies represents an opportunity loss of over 400 million tonnes of potato, or an amount greater than 2010 world potato production. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits (in contrast to the tubers). The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Millet's technique for this work incorporated paste-like pigments thickly applied over a coarsely textured canvas. It is believed to have originated from the German Klöße, prepared by early German settlers who lived among the Acadians. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes): S. chaucha and S. juzepczukii.  As well as affecting potatoes directly, climate change will also affect the distributions and populations of many potato diseases and pests. (2001), South America: (English and Spanish): Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Eurasia: Armenia, Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan.  Like many crops, potatoes are likely to be affected by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature and precipitation, as well as interactions between these factors. Tortilla de patatas (potato omelette) and patatas bravas (a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce) are near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas. It is generally either a Yukon Gold potato or a red potato, called gold creamers or red creamers respectively, and measures approximately 2.5 cm (1 in) in diameter. Solanum tuberosum is native to Central and South America, but is now widely naturalized beyond its native range in extra-tropical regions and is considered a weed in many places including Australia, Indonesia, Micronesia, India, and Turkey (Holm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012). The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from the earth, water, and fire. Today they are a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union. According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year. In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no evidence that a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed. Bauernfrühstück (literally farmer's breakfast) is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs, ham and vegetables.  The international Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium announced in 2009 that they had achieved a draft sequence of the potato genome. , Following millennia of selective breeding, there are now over 5,000 different types of potatoes. It is crucial that the storage area is dark, ventilated well and, for long-term storage, maintained at temperatures near 4 °C (39 °F). OneIndia Hindi Dictionary offers the meaning of Solanum tuberosum in hindi with pronunciation, synonyms, antonyms, adjective and more related words in Hindi. In Tamil Nadu this tuber acquired a name based on its appearance 'urulai-k-kizhangu' (உருளைக் கிழங்கு) meaning cylindrical tuber. 2 are rated as lower in quality due to their appearance (e.g. Accompanying each fluorescent lectin is an analysis data sheet summarizing the results of our quality control tests and providing pertinent information on the product. Solanum tuberosum is the common cultivated potato known for its starchy tubers. The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Meaning of Solanum tuberosum. 2003 May 7; 51(10): 2964–73, "United States Potato Board -Seed Potatoes", Science & Advice for Scottish Agriculture, "Dutch saltwater potatoes offer hope for world's hungry", "NJF seminar No. ", "International Year of the Potato: 2008, Asia and Oceania", "People are spending $14 to send message-bearing potatoes", "6 gifts you can anonymously send to your mortal enemies", "New company lets you send messages on potatoes", "Pembrokeshire Early Potato gets protected European status", Online Potato Pedigree Database for cultivated varieties, GMO Safety: Genetic engineering on potatoes, Solanum tuberosum (potato, papas): life cycle, tuber anatomy at GeoChemBio, Potato, in Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, List of top international rankings by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Potato&oldid=1000727582, Crops originating from indigenous Americans, Articles with dead external links from May 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing Quechua-language text, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as. A raw yellow dent corn Timothy Johns: With bitter Herbs They Shall Eat it : Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1990, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, "Potato – Definition of potato by Merriam-Webster", "Geographic distribution of wild potato species", "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping", "Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato", American Association for the Advancement of Science, "DNA from herbarium specimens settles a controversy about origins of the European potato", "Regulation of potato tuberization by daylength and gibberellins", "Consumer acceptance of genetically modified potatoes", "A genetically modified potato, not for eating, is stirring some opposition in Europe", "Molecular description and similarity relationships among native germplasm potatoes (, "ISO accreditation a world-first for CIP genebank", "Sequencing the Potato Genome: Outline and First Results to Come from the Elucidation of the Sequence of the World's Third Most Important Food Crop", "Using DNA, Scientists Hunt For The Roots Of The Modern Potato", "Welcome to the Crop Wild Relatives Prebreeding project", "Potato and tomato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans: An overview of pathology and resistance breeding", "Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight", "Saving the Potato in its Andean Birthplace", "Potatoes for Chipping Grades and Standards | Agricultural Marketing Service", "Retrospective View of North American Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Breeding in the 20th and 21st Centuries", "Genetically Engineered Organisms Public Issues Education Project/Am I eating GE potatoes? This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. In the third phase the tips of the stolons swell forming new tubers and the shoots continue to grow and flowers typically develop soon after. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland, in areas where westerly winds reduce aphid attack and the spread of potato virus pathogens. noun. Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. EWG’s Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases. (Solánum tuberósum.) A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease. In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. New varieties grown from seed can be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. The page not only provides Urdu meaning of Solanum Tuberosum but also gives extensive definition in English language. Meaning of solanum tuberosum.  The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated; the Chilean potato, however, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile. Solanum tuberosum by Gaspard Bauhin (1591) oldest known European picture by Carolus Clusius (1583) Lower part of S. tuberosum plant. Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. What does Solanum tuberosum mean?  In the Andes region of South America, where the species is indigenous, some close relatives of the potato are cultivated. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation.  Potato density assessment can be performed by floating them in brines. Solanum tuberosum L.. SpecimenId: 461952 SpecimenText: Zak, Vlastimil - 1564 Caption: Zak - 1564 - Ecuador Image kind: Herbarium Specimen Full sized images can be … The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world. Cepelinai is Lithuanian national dish. Love (eds), University of Idaho Agricultural Communications, 363–81. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud."  Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes. 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